Adolphe Sax was a 19th century Belgian inventor of musical instruments.
While most modern instruments evolved from more primitive roots, his new horns and woodwinds married physics and ergonomics–placing vents on the horn according to mathematical accuracy while placing the keys to open them according to convenient hand positing.
He cradted the Saxhorn, applying his keyed system to a cupped mouthpiece, and the Saxophone, applying it to a reeded tone source–which he patented in Paris in 1837.
The Saxophone was a hit. the Saxhorn...not so much.
Wurlitzer Chrome Plated C Melody Saxophone
"C Melody Saxophones" were parlor entertainment instruments popular between 1917 and 1937. The main appeal was that is allowed a performer to read over the pianist's shoulder without having to transpose.
As radio and recordings flourished, the art of parlor performance languished, and the superior intonation of the traditional Eb Alto and Bb Tenor instruments prevailed.
This instrument was most likely made by Martin for the Wurlitzer Brand, but other possible manufacturers include Conn or Buescher.